The problem of infertility. Causes.
First of all, I want to start by saying that you are not alone! The problem of conceiving a child is much more common than you might imagine. According to WHO (World Health Organization), every sixth couple in the world is faced with certain difficulties in achieving pregnancy. But the good news is that we can help almost 90% of them to realize their dream of creating a complete family.
What is the definition of infertility?
If you have regular, unprotected sex for a year without getting pregnant, then you may have a problem of infertility.
What could be the reason?
There are several possible causes of infertility, because the process of conception is very difficult.
In order the fertilization and pregnancy occurred, hundreds of specific hormones, chemical and physical factors should play their roles at the right time. In the female ovary one, sometimes two follicles are ripen . At some point on the background of a complex interaction of hormones ovulation occurs (rupture of the follicle) with the release of a healthy egg. From female abdomen egg influenced by many factors enters the fallopian tube. In the man testis is created fertile sperm, which must get into the vagina, "swim" through the cervical canal, through the uterus to the fallopian tube. In the tube sperm meets healthy egg for several hours after ovulation. Sperm and egg surround with a very complex chemical and hemotaktical mechanisms contribute to the penetration of one of them inside through the outer shell. There is a sperm fertilization. The fertilized egg is in the fallopian tube for about three days, and then it descends into the uterus, grows and divides there for a few days and then it implantes in the lining of the uterus - the endometrium. During whole growth period, ovulation, fertilization in the inner layer of the uterus - the endometrium undergoing complex hormone changes, to ensure favorable conditions for normal implantation of the embryo.
Approximately 30% of infertility associated with female factor, about 30% - of male factor, 20% - is a combination of male and female factors, 20% - of unknown origins.
Female infertility causes
Problems with ovulation are the most common causes of infertility in women. Poor egg, lack of ovulation due to hormonal imbalance or failure, irregular ovulation polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) tend to be the cause of ovulatory infertility. They are often associated with women age, especially it concerns the quality of eggs, which rather deteriorates when women are after 36 . Premature ovarian failure when the ovaries stop working when the women are 40 years old or more is another cause of female infertility.
After a complete assessment of the woman's treatment may include monoovulyatsiyi stimulation, insemination, IVF or egg donation.
The uterus and fallopian tubes
Ovum from the abdominal cavity gets into the fallopian tube where fertilization is made by her husband's sperm. The fertilized egg moves from the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the uterine tube is blocked, that is impassable for the egg and sperm, there is no chance for achieving pregnancy, as there will be no fertilization and moving a fertilized egg into the uterus.
The causes of tubal obstruction are:
- scar tissue;
- inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs;
- adhesions from previous operations;
- the end of the fallopian tubes is damaged;
- operations on the pelvic organs;
- subserous myoma nodes.
The typical method of treatment is in vitro fertilization (IVF), but if the problem of infertility lies only in the obstruction of the fallopian tubes, sometimes this function can be restored by means of surgery by laparoscopy on pelvic organs. If, after a successful operation on restoring the patency, tubal pregnancy has not occurred within one year,the only treatment to achieve pregnancy is IVF.
Acceptance of certain medications
Drugs intended for chemotherapy are toxic and have irreversible effect on the ovaries. Today specialists of our center have achieved significant results in the freezing and storage of eggs. So if you have a need to take chemotherapy, we persistently recommend to take care of your future and healthy children and keep the egg before treatment.
Male infertility causes
The most common cause of infertility in men is abnormal or insufficient sperm. Problems can occur when there is not enough sperm or it is of poor quality. In the latter case, we mean that sperm motility may be low, and it affects its ability to "flow" as vigorously as it should be. Or it may be abnormal sperm shape. In normal semen sample it should be a minimum of 20 million sperm in each milliliter, half of which is moving actively.
Problems with sperm sometimes are very difficult to solve, but some success has been achieved using a variety of medical facilities to improve the fertility of sperm. The invention and introduction of technology ICSI (sperm entry into the egg cytoplasm) gives a great chance for couples with male infertility.
Each testis lobules are 1 - 4 of convoluted seminiferous tubules in length from 30 to 80 cm, in the wall of which there is spermatogenesis. At the tips of the lobes tubules continue in the short straight tubules of which originates system vas deferens. Any of the above tubules are blocked.
The testicles produce and store sperm. If they are damaged, that directly affects the quality and quantity of produced sperm. The damage to the testicles can be caused by many reasons such as infection or cancer or surgery to the testicles.
In these cases, it is still possible to remove sperm surgically.
Acceptance of certain medications
Prolonged and excessive use of anabolic steroids reduces sperm count and affects their mobility. Drugs used in chemotherapy, can seriously reduce sperm production. However, today the specialists of our centre have achieved significant results in both freezing and storage of eggs and sperm. So if you have a need to take chemotherapy, we recommend to keep the sperm before treatment.